Articles of agreement and conventions, made and concluded at the City
of Washington, on the twenty-eighth day of February,
in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-one, by and between James B. Gardiner, specially appointed
Commissioner on the part of the United States, of the one part, and the undersigned, principal Chiefs and Warriors of the
Seneca tribe of Indians, residing on the Sandusky river in the State of Ohio, on the part of said tribe, of the other part; for the
cession the lands now owned and occupied by the said tribe of Indians, lying on the waters of the Sandusky river, and situate
within the territorial limits of the organized counties of Seneca and Sandusky, in said State of Ohio.
WHEREAS the tribe of Seneca Indians, residing on Sandusky River, in
the State of Ohio, have earnestly solicited the President
of the United States to negotiate with them, for an exchange of the lands, now owned and occupied by them, for lands of the
United States, west of the river Mississippi, and for the removal and permanent settlement of said tribe: Therefore, in order to
carry into effect the aforesaid objects, the following articles have been agreed upon:
ARTICLE 1. The Seneca tribe of Indians, in consideration of the stipulations
herein made on the part of the United States, do
forever cede., release and quit claim to the United States, the lands granted to them, by patent, in fee simple, by the sixth
section of the Treaty, made at the foot of the Rapids of the Miami River of Lake Erie, on the twenty-ninth day of September, in
the year 1817, containing thirty thousand acres, and described as follows: "beginning on the Sandusky river at the lower corner
of the section granted to William Spicer; thence down the river on the east side, with the meanders thereof at high water mark,
to a point east of the mouth of Wolf Creek; thence, and from the beginning, east, so far that a north line will include the quantity
of thirty thousand acres."
And said tribe also cede, as aforesaid, one other tract of land, reserved
for the use of the said Senecas, by the second article of
the treaty, made at St. Mary's, in the State of Ohio, on the seventeenth day of September, in the year 1818, which tract is
described in said treaty as follows: "Ten thousand acres of land, to be laid off on the east side of the Sandusky river, adjoining
the south side of their reservation of thirty thousand acres, which begins on the Sandusky river, at the lower corner of William
Spicer's section, and excluding therefrom the said William Spicer's section:" making, in the whole of this cession, forty thousand
ARTICLE 2. In consideration of the cessions stipulated in the foregoing
article; the United States agree to cause the said tribe
of Senecas, consisting of about four hundred souls, to be removed in a convenient and suitable manner, to the western side of
the Mississippi river; and will grant them, by patent, in fee simple, as long as they shall exist as a nation and remain on the same,
a tract of land, situate on, and adjacent to the northern boundary of the lands heretofore granted to the Cherokee nation of
Indians, and adjoining the boundary of the State of Missouri; which tract shall extend fifteen miles from east to west, and seven
miles from north to south, containing about sixty-seven thousand acres, be the same more or less; for which the President of the
United States shall cause letters patent to be issued, in due form of law, agreeably to the Act of the last session of Congress.
ARTICLE 3. The United States will defray the expenses of the removal
of the said Senecas, and will moreover supply them
with a sufficiency of wholesome provisions, to support them for one year, after their arrival at their new residence.
ARTICLE 4. Out of the first sales, to be made of the lands herein ceded
by the Senecas, the United States will cause a grist
mill, a saw mill, and a blacksmith shop to be erected on the lands herein granted to the Senecas, with all necessary tools, to be
supported and kept in operation, at the expense of the United States, for the sole benefit of the said Senecas; and for these
purposes, the United States will employ a miller and a blacksmith, for such term as the President of the United States, in his
discretion, may think proper.
ARTICLE 5. As the Seneca Indians, on their removal, will stand in need
of funds to make farms and erect houses; it is agreed
that the United States will advance them six thousand dollars, in lieu of the improvements which they have made on the lands
herein ceded to the United States; which sum shall be reimbursed from the sales of the lands ceded. An equitable distribution of
this sum shall be made by the Chiefs, with the consent of the tribe, in general council assembled, to such individuals of the tribe,
as, having left improvements, may be properly entitled to receive the same.
ARTICLE 6. The live stock, farming utensils, and other chattel property
which the Senecas now own, and may not be able to
take with them, shall be sold by some agent, to be appointed by the President; and the proceeds paid to the owners of such
ARTICLE 7. The expenses of the Chiefs, in coming to and remaining at
Washington, and returning to Ohio, as well as the
expenses and per diem pay of the native Interpreter accompanying them, shall be paid by the United States.
ARTICLE 8. The United States will expose to public sale, to the highest
bidders, at such time and in such manner as the
President may direct, the tracts of land herein ceded by the Seneca Indians: And, after deducting from the proceeds of such
sale, the minimum price of the public lands; the cost of building the saw and grist mills and blacksmith shop for the Senecas; the
cost of surveying the lands; and the sum of six thousand dollars, to be advanced in lieu of their present improvements: it is
agreed that any balance which may remain, of the avails of the lands after sale as aforesaid, shall constitute a fund for the future
exigencies of the tribe, on which the Government of the United States consent and agree to pay to the Chiefs of the nation, for
the use and general benefit of the nation, annually, five per cent on said balance, as an annuity:
And if, at any time hereafter, the Seneca Chiefs, by and with the advice
and consent of their tribe in General Council
assembled, shall make known to the President, their desire that the fund, thus to be created, should be dissolved and given to
the tribe; the President shall cause the same to be paid over to them, in such manner as he may direct; provided he shall
become satisfied of the propriety of so doing.
ARTICLE 9. It is agreed that any annuity, accruing to the Senecas, by
former treaties, shall be paid to them at their intended
residence, west of the Mississippi, under the direction of the President.
ARTICLE 10. The United States hereby agree to give to the Senecas, as
presents, one hundred rifles, as soon as practicable,
and four hundred blankets, for the use of the tribe, to be delivered to them at such time and place as may be directed by the
Secretary of War. Also fifty ploughs, fifty hoes and fifty axes, will be given to the tribe, as aforesaid, to assist them in
ARTICLE 11. The Chiefs of the Senecas, being impressed with gratitude
towards Henry C. Brish, their sub-agent, for his
private advances of money and provisions, and numerous other acts of kindness towards them, as well as his extra services in
coming with them to Washington; and having expressed a wish that a quarter section of a hundred and sixty acres of the lands
ceded by them, should be granted to him in consideration thereof: the same is hereby granted to him and his heirs to be located
under the direction of the President the United States.
ARTICLE 12. The lands granted by this Agreement and Convention to the
Seneca tribe of Indians shall not be sold or ceded
by them, except to the United States.
ARTICLE 13. It is communicated by the Chiefs here, that, in Council,
before they left home, it was agreed by the tribe, that,
for their services in coming to the City of Washington, each should receive one hundred dollars, to be paid by said tribe: At the
request of said Chiefs, it is agreed that the United States will advance the amount, to wit: five hundred dollars, to be hereafter
reimbursed from the sale of their lands in Ohio.
In testimony whereof, the parties respectively have this twenty-eighth of February signed the same and affixed their seals.
James B. Gardiner,
Cornstick, his x mark,
Small Cloud Spicer, his x mark,
Seneca Steel, his x mark,
Hard Hickory, his x mark,
Capt. Good Hunter, his x mark.
Signed in presence of
Henry C. Brish, Sub-agent,
George Herron, Interpreter,
W. B. Lewis,
P. G. Randolph.